All international conventions to which Pakistan is a signatory and obligatory to report on emphasizing on equal treatment of men and women in all circumstances, including disasters.
Natural disasters affect everyone within their orbit but disasters always have gender-differentiated impacts. One of the critical root causes of such differential impacts is unequal relationships between men, boys, girls, and women. Such inequalities create differences in gender roles and responsibilities, inequalities in access and control over resources and decision-making powers. The shared effect of these inequalities enhances the exposure and vulnerability of women and girls, who are already culturally, socioeconomically and physically at a disadvantaged position with fewer resources to enable them to respond to natural disasters.
Gender intersects with the categories of class, ethnicity, and other social markers of identity, privilege, and marginality to reinforce people’s vulnerabilities to disaster. Household relations and dynamics also play a critical role in determining people’s levels of risk and vulnerability, as the domestic arena is where gender relations, roles, and responsibilities, as well as the privileges and entitlements that arise from them, are enacted (Bradshaw 2004b). Even though women do suffer disproportionately, it does not mean that all women suffer more than men or that their experiences are necessarily similar to one another. Like men, women are not a homogenous group.
The fragility of Pakistan to natural disasters is worsened by multiple crosscutting vulnerabilities, including social vulnerability resulting from a lack of inclusion in decision-making, physical vulnerability due to limited access to and control over economic and physical resources such as money, housing, land, and other assets, and psychological vulnerability caused by perceptions of having little or no control over one’s life. Keeping in view these barriers to sustainable development, gender equality and inclusion are placed at the core of NDRMF operations. A Gender and Development Policy as adopted in May 2018, which highlights the Fund’s commitment and minimum standards to promote gender equality through its operations. NDRMF believes mainstreaming gender makes disaster risk management interventions more sustainable.
NDRMF in collaboration with Fund Implementing Partners (FIPs) will undertake following anticipated approaches to mainstream gender equality through different programme(s) and project (s):
- Grounding interventions on gender vulnerability assessment through MHVRA, assessment of different contributing factors, means and ways to address the identified gaps, differentiating practical gender needs (PGNs) and strategic gender needs (SGNs).
- Building resilience of men, women boys, girls and persons with disabilities (PWDs) by transferring knowledge and skills, awareness raising aiming to change gender roles and gender division of labor in risk environments.
- Enhanced gender inclusive protection through retrofitting of social sector buildings (education and health sector public sector buildings) for maximizing access to these services.
- Engendering and sharing best practices and knowledge products for building the resilience of men, women boys, girls and persons with disabilities (PWDs).
- Introducing participatory accountability mechanisms aiming at gender inclusive decision-making processes at the community and policy levels through programs and projects implemented in collaboration with FIPs.
- 2030 Agenda -Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
- 1995-Beijing Platform for Action
- 1993-United Nations Declaration on Violence Against Women
- 1989-United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
- 1985-Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women (NFLS)
- 1984-Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
- 1948-The United Nations Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UNDHR)
Through this, the Fund will contribute to:
- Greater, and more effective, sustainable and equitable disaster reliance results
- Women and men’s enhanced resilience to natural disasters, and their equal contribution to, and benefit from the Fund’s initiatives
- Gender-informed and responsive policies, plans and policies
- Reduced gender disparities in social, economic and disaster-related vulnerabilities
Gender mainstreaming is fundamental to NDRMF’S objectives and guiding principles, including through engaging women and men of all ages as stakeholders in the design, development and implementation of strategies and activities to be financed. The first Gender Toolkit prepared by National Disaster Risk Management Fund (NDRMF) was aimed to ensure gender integration through programming and projects financed by NDRMF.
This toolkit includes guidance on how to undertake a gender analysis, what needs to be done to ensure gender is mainstreamed at different stages of project cycle, how gender can be integrated into the Results Framework, data collection, and usage for enhanced impacts, and effective performance measurement mechanisms contributing to overall improved compliance monitoring.